Studying Central Asia: a theory about character accentuation

Everything always rests on the knowledge of Central Asia. All courses, all textbooks, all webinars and specialists talk about working with Central Asia. Central Asia is everywhere. Without it - no way.

Target audience and psychology

In this article we will approach the study of the target audience from the unpopular side - the psychological one. Why unpopular? Because psychology in this case resembles a soap bubble: there are many methods for character determination, use it — I don’t want it! But it is worth trying to put them into practice - and nothing concrete happens. So you will include in the portrait of the character data about his type in socionics and archetype? "Mikhail, 27 years old, Hamlet ... Hey, how do you figure out the archetype ??". How useful will such information be? Can you predict the motivation of people, their aspirations, behavior? Or do you need at least a degree in psychology?

See also: Target audience: why know your client

Another theory

We will talk about another theory of characterology - the theory of "character accentuation". It was derived by a number of psychiatrists (P. B. Gannushkin, K. Leonhard, AE Lychko, ME E. Burneau), systematized and processed by modern scientists (V.V. Ponomarenko, A.P. Egides). To date, this theory is perhaps one of the most practiced.

The essence of the theory is that the nature of a person depends on the type of nervous system and a number of features that influenced its development. These features affect the development of the central nervous system and that, adjusting, changes our character. This is how the "psychotype" is born (there is no such word in theory, but we will use it for convenience).

The number of psycho-types is not exactly known: scientists call different numbers. We will focus on the researches of practitioners and describe 7. We will write out each type of these seven according to the following scheme: Motivation (what drives the psycho type); famous representatives; behavior features; identification (how to distinguish one from the other) and sales techniques (we have the same marketing resource, after all!). These points will be quite enough for familiarization and practical purposes.

We note right away - we describe "spherical psycho-types in a vacuum" - i.e. with going wild features. This is done to better display the logic of behavior. In real life, the "pure" types are almost never met - they are always combined with each other. It must be remembered. This concludes the introduction and proceeds to the descriptions.

Psycho type №1. Hysteroid He is "demonstrative".

Motivation: to attract attention. Because of the peculiarities of the nervous system, the hysteroids constantly need listeners and spectators. How to get them? Yes, whatever you like! All means are good: bright appearance, accessories, outrageous behavior, strange manner of expression, voice. And all the same, what is the "peacock" is annoying the behavior of many: irritation is also a sign of attention.

Famous representatives: Sergey Yesenin. At the beginning of his poetic career, the young man "played peasant", coming to poetic evenings in sandals and village shirts. Another example is the scandalous writer Oscar Wilde, who walked the streets in velvet jackets with a lily in his hands. If you turn to fictional characters, then this is the parrot Kesha (Return of the Prodigal Parrot), Ostap Bender and Gennady Kozodoev (Gesha) performed by Andrey Mironov.

Features: The mood, effectiveness, and performance of the hysteroid also depend on the level of attention. Only in the presence of viewers and fans can demonstrative work well. There will be no public - the effectiveness will decrease, and then disappear altogether - the hysteroid will become bored at work. Want to increase loyalty and efficiency? Use flattery and praise. Post a photo of the isteroid on the board of honor, make a "face" of the company, etc. Give him the opportunity to do what he can best - to shine: drawing attention to himself, he will surely attract him to your product.

Identification: In the first place - in bright appearance. Screaming colors, modern clothes, huge cuts and décolleté (for girls, of course), fashionable hairstyles with shaved temples, expensive accessories. Pay attention: “brightly” doesn’t always mean “beautifully”.

The hysteroidal facial expression is excessively active: emotions are not simply written on the face - they are reflected so vividly that they seem to be false. Gesture active, with one feature - almost all gestures end with an indication of himself. In speech, the “I” often slips and the desire to draw the attention of the audience to itself dominates. The movements are smooth, catlike: in elegance, the hysteroids outperform all other psycho-types.

Sales technique: Knowing the main motivation of the hysteroid (the thirst for attention, the desire to raise his own EGO), it is not difficult to guess what the marketing strategy should be based on. Your product should help stand out. With it, women should become more beautiful, and men - more brutal. The accessory should raise the status, and the courses should amaze colleagues / acquaintances with new skills and abilities.

The final need, of course, will depend on the intelligence level of the demonstrative: if a village girl needs to get a beautiful blouse, then the Tina Kandelaki level hider will need at least a training session that allows you to multiply 30-digit numbers in your mind.

See also: How to use the power of archetypes in marketing

Psycho type 2: Epileptoid. He is "excitable" and "intensely authoritarian."

Motivation: Striving for order. Moreover, the “order” here should be understood more broadly than simply “putting things in places”. The order of the epileptoid is global - “in places”, not only things are laid out, but also social relations, people's behavior, etc. The question arises, how does the epileptoid know how to correct it? From childhood and education. Epileptoidy take the life attitudes in which they grew up. As they grow older, these attitudes take root and become the only correct ones - the criteria of "order" are born. In the epileptoid family loved to listen to the classics? Everything, "normal people" listen to classical music. All other areas - at least "something strange". In the epileptoid youth, did the girls wear long skirts? Everything, jeans, pants and "mini" - this is corruption and vulgarity. "Not married before 30? Amoralen!"; "You do not earn money, but you work for an idea - a loser!" In general, once again passing by the grandmothers at the entrance, think about it - are there epileptoids in front of you?

Famous Representatives: Joseph Stalin, who literally put "order" in the law. This type includes Marshal G. Zhukov, artists M. Ulyanov, Nonna Mordyukova, I. Goethe, and others. If you take fictional characters, this is James Bond performed by Daniel Craig, Gleb Zheglov from "The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed", and Hippolyte from "The Irony of Fate" (remember the description: "such as you are always right, because you live as it should be!").

Features: All epileptoids are professionals in their field. This is a “proprietary” trait - choosing a profession for themselves, representatives of the psycho type delve deeper and deeper into it. They are not afraid of monotony and boredom - epileptoids can study literature for hours, check details, reduce reports, etc. In general, they are the very "worker bees" of society. Accountants, analysts, military and other specialties, in which the systematic approach and procedure are important - all this is suitable for epileptoids. The main thing - do not force them to work with people - it can end badly.

The psychotype occupies an honorable second place in terms of aggressiveness: epileptoids are ready to defend their views with their fists. However, for no reason aggression is rarely used (except for individuals with low IQ = gopnik in the gateway). In other cases, epileptoidy try to be restrained. Want to avoid communication problems? There are two options: be stronger than him and do not let him interfere in your life. The second option is to give up and do it the way he wants. And this is not a joke - in marriage with an epileptoid, many do so. Where do you think the term "henpecked" comes from?

Striving for orderliness dictates its gender roles. Those. Male epileptoid is a classic "real man" - a stern and fair getter. Epileptoid woman is likely to be economic, hardworking, able to cook tasty. Both representatives will be logical, consistent and able to resolve any issues. However, there is a downside to the medal - lack of kindness and empathy (understanding of what the other person feels). Epileptoid fails to understand why a man suddenly cries over a film, and a teenager suffers for several years due to unsuccessful relationships. And even more so the epileptoid will not be able to act "vest" in which you can cry. "If you really help - so the case" - thinks the epileptoid.

Another disadvantage is tediousness. The order in the head and thoughts presupposes a detailed structuring of all the details and images - and as a result it turns out that when asked to tell the story, the epileptoid issues a report. However, if you really need a report or a tutorial article ...

Identification: Epileptoids are dressed according to the situation: at work - at work, at the sports ground - at sports, at a dinner party - at a dinner party. At the same time, clothes are always perfect: without holes, scuffs, traces of dirt and other flaws. The epileptoid hairstyles are mostly short - men can generally get rid of their hair, women often get their hair cut under the boy, or they wear tails. Mimicry in representatives of the sedentary ("stone face"), moderate gestures (usually with a narrow amplitude - all gestures in front of you, at the level of the torso), body build - in most cases correct athletic (shoulders and torso form a triangle). Behavior - cautious-probing. Once in the new team, the epileptoid evaluates who is who. He takes the "weak" under his patronage, and leaves the "strong" alone. Consider this when communicating.

Sales technique: "Best offer". Epileptoids do not like to spend money (they do not like it so much that they are often reputed to be miserly and miserly), and therefore they buy only the best products at the best price. Want to sell something - prove that they will not find anything better for such a price. The epileptoid will not accept the decision right away - until it checks to see if there is a better option, until it suffocates its own greed ... But if it does buy it and remains satisfied, it will recommend it to everyone.

See also: Neuromarketing, or How to get hold of the buyer’s brain

Psycho type 3: Paranoiac. He's "stuck" and "fanatical."

Motivation: very important goal. What exactly - every paranor chooses himself. But if you chose - save yourself, who can: to achieve this goal, he will not spare either his energy, time or lives. The goal will justify any inconvenience - half-starving life, wasting money, working on three jobs, etc. Moreover, the paranoiac and from others will require a similar impact. After all, for the sake of an important matter, they try!

It is the paranoids who best describes the phrase "the end justifies the means." This is their life motto and core behavior. The goal is everything. Loss of purpose is death. Or, at least, depression.

Famous representatives: If paranoids succeed, the story retains their names. There is no need to go far for examples: Peter I, V.I. Lenin, Steve Jobs. If you take fictional characters, then the classic paranoiac is the book Sherlock Holmes (studied 1000 cases, stomped corpses and developed chemicals to identify blood stains). Another example is the Underwood couple from the Card House series.

Features: The "side effect" of dedication is leadership. The explanation is simple: the paranoid is absolutely stress-resistant, self-confident, knows what to do and is always ready to give instructions. As a result of such behavior, he becomes the “leader of the pack” and further responsibility for decision-making falls on him.

Ambient for paranoid - "screws" for the operation of the mechanism. Remember, we talked about low empathy in epileptoids? So, the paranoids have none at all. And this type takes the first place in aggressiveness: it does not forgive offenses, it does not regret its enemies, it is ready to fight for the goal.

Identification: every adequate person will be able to recognize the paranoia after 5 minutes of communication - serious, businesslike and self-confident "fanatics" simply attract attention. They dress up to match their goals. If you are a paranoid politician, there will be a suit, a tie, and a status watch. If before you the popularizer of environmentally friendly waste-free villages - get ready to see a man in a rags and a beard. The appearance of a paranoid almost always reflects his purpose.

With regards to facial expressions: it is sedentary and almost always with disdain (determined by one-sidedness: a smile on one side only is contemptuous. A raised eyebrow is contemptuous surprise, it’s a distrust). Gesturing sweeping, indicating: he (well, or she) likes to poke his fingers and point the way "to a bright future." Voice - loud, command. The behavior is mostly demonstrative and correct: the paranoiac will be polite and courteous as long as he needs it. At other times there may be rudeness and rudeness. In general, with a brief acquaintance - quite charming and pleasant to talk to people.

Sales technique: dotted. A paranoiac — a realist who knows perfectly well what He wants is not amenable to manipulation, and even more so — often he himself is able to persuade people. Therefore, if he knows that your product will not help him in achieving the goal, you are unlikely to make a sale. On the other hand, if the situation is reversed ... In general, if you want to force the paranoiac to buy something, prove that the product will be useful for its purpose. If you can, he will spare no money.

See also: Psychology of influence: how to improve posts in social networks using its principles

Psycho type number 4: Emotive. He is "labile" or "impressionable."

Motivation: harmony. The emotive man wants everything in the world to be harmonious: people are kind to nature and to each other, and beauty predominates in life. The emergence of such a motivation contributes to a low emotional threshold: due to the peculiarities of the nervous system, emotive people feel emotions more strongly than other psycho-types. Surely, among your acquaintances, there are people who in the cinema start crying, it would seem, on absolutely unemotional scenes. Such a reaction is the “calling card” of the emotive psycho.

Famous representatives: Emotivity can often be seen in artists (although it is hidden behind the acquired habit of "being visible" - hysteroid). The emotions include Sergey Bezrukov, French actress Marion Cotillard, artist Vincent Van Gogh. From the fictional characters you can remember Kota Leopold with his kindness and the eternal "Let's live together."

Features: Emotivy kind. But this kindness often leaves them sideways: people around her start using it. But the emotive cannot do anything about it: he usually does not have the ability to refuse (unless he develops it through long-term work on himself). With aggression, the psycho-type is even more difficult, and therefore even banal things like “reinserting impudent children” or “barking at the naughty children” become a severe test.

Another feature is increased empathy. Emotivates literally feel the condition of another person, and therefore communicate with them easily and comfortably. Well, how else, because they tune in to the same wavelength with the interlocutor, and as a result, they give exactly that share of sympathy and understanding that was necessary. Excellent psychologists come out of emotions - they know how to listen and delve into other people's problems like no other.

Finally, the pursuit of harmony also gives the emotive a delicate taste: representatives of the psychotype intuitively distinguish real art and beauty from mediocrity. This sense helps to settle in the field of decorating the space - interior design, design, and so on.

Identification: It is pleasant to look at emotives - in contrast to hysteria, they strive to look beautiful, not bright. In this regard, clothing emotive always perfectly matched and hides all the flaws in appearance. The mimicry is mobile, however, it also has a “main emotion” - an expression of sadness (/ - “curb house”). Gestures moderate - movements rounded, smooth, as if taken from some kind of gymnastics. Sharp nervous gestures are practically absent.

Sales technique: emotional. Emotiv best selling through emotions. Jeffrey James, the editor of the resource Inc.com and the author of the blog Sales Source, once singled out 6 feelings that can guide us at the moment of making a decision: fear, altruism, shame, pride, greed, envy. Guess which of them should be put under pressure when working with emotive? That's right, altruism. Show an emotive what benefits the purchase will bring to employees and colleagues, describe the benefits for clients and partners, tell us about the common good that your company seeks, etc. В общем, вплетайте в предложение информацию о том, что покупка будет полезна не только покупателю, но и людям вокруг. Некоторые исследователи также советуют почаще использовать слова "польза", "помощь", "улучшать", "развивать".

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Психотип №5: Гипертимный. Он же "маниакальный".

Мотивация: Fun! It is what drives hypertima. Life should be fun and interesting. Is always. That is why hypertyms try to find this fun - they never sit at home, they easily wedge in any company, they constantly joke and tell something. A hyperthymic existence is an endless fun adventure, almost never diluted by seriousness.

Famous representatives: Artists Yevgeny Leonov, Mikhail Evdokimov, satirist Mikhail Zhvanetsky. Of the fictional characters - Masha from the animated series "Masha and the Bear." Always restless, noisy, with an incredible burden of adventure.

Features: Hypertimia lacks one of the important defense mechanisms - fear. Hypertymes recklessly bold and simply do not think about the possible dangers. Perhaps, will carry. And even if they do not carry it, they will not grieve for a long time - not that character. Negative emotions are nonsense for hyperthyma: it easily forgives insults, it is easy to put up after quarrels and always looks positively at life.

For the rest, hyperthymes are the complete opposite of paranoids. If paranoids work all their life, then hypertima rest all their life. No, this, of course, does not mean that they do nothing. Do, of course. Here are the cases, they choose only those that are interesting to them. This paranoiac can do everything that is required to achieve the goal - and give hypertime to work in which you can communicate with someone, joke or have some other fun. Otherwise, he will be bored, and the work will go to no. Perhaps the best hypertima manifest themselves in the role of a toast-master or a traveling salesman. Constantly new flow of people with whom you need to communicate and or have fun. What could be better?

The only similarity between paranoiac and hyperthyme is a strong nervous system. Both types simply emit energy. However, the paranoia spends it on work, and hyperthymus - on rest and fun. Eternal parties, dances, campaigns and side jobs. And do not get tired ...

Another feature of the psycho-type is the reaction rate: a healthy nervous system responds faster to stimuli and, as a result, hypertime really realizes faster. Just do not think that this is a definite plus: hyperthymic thoughts often overtake speech. This leads to "porridge in the mouth" and leap from thought to thought.

Identification: hypertime is distinguished by increased motor activity: it cannot sit for long in one place. A typical physique of the psycho-type is considered plump, although there is also a regular athletic figure. Hypertim clothing is universal - i.e. one in which you can work and dance at the disco and go dancing to the mountains. Something simple and functional. Carelessness is characteristic of the psychotype - there may be stains, abrasions and other flaws on clothes. This is due to the fact that hyperthyme has no time to monitor the appearance.

Facial expression is mobile. The prevailing emotion is surprise (raised eyebrows, open mouth, eyes wide open). The gesturing is broad and indicative - with the hands of the hyperthyme it illustrates what it says. The behavior is strictly field - hypertime rarely plans something in advance and acts on the basis of circumstances. However, wherever he appears, he will try to create a fun and relaxed atmosphere.

Sales technique: standard. Hypertim is open and easy to manipulate, and therefore an experienced sales manager will have no problems with it. If there is no experienced manager, consider the motivation: hypertime all his life looking for fun and positive emotions. Tell him about how awesome your product really is and how interesting it will be to use it. If you do everything right, the decision will be made instantly, almost without thinking, under the rule of the moment. And on the contrary, if it takes time to make a decision - most likely they will simply forget about the product.

See also: How to use the ego audience and opinion leaders to their advantage?

Psycho type 6: Schizoid. He is also "introvertive" and "closed-depth".

Motivation: creation. Only at once we will decide: "creativity" in this case is the desire to create something new. So, schizoids are created to create. And they will create, not because they have such a goal, but because of the peculiarities of thinking. The fact is that schizoids think differently than other psycho-types. Simply put, then in other psycho-types the thought goes from point A to point B. Points B, C, D and others are swept aside as irrelevant. A schizoid thought goes from point A to points B, C, D, E, E at the same time, and none of them sweeps away.

Consider an example.

Situation: the house ran out of bread.

Thoughts epileptoid: "There is no bread in the house (A) - you have to go and buy (B)."

Schizoid thoughts: "There is no bread in the house (A) - You have to go buy (B)." Buy ".... What a boring word. Just give the money and get the goods (C). That would be to steal, like in an adventure film (D). And run around the city from the police, as in the film “Yamakasi” (D). Yes, we must reconsider this film! (E) ".

About bread, as you understand, you can already forget - thoughts are busy with the film. However, it is this kind of thinking that allows us to talk about creativity: the schizoid finds connections and concepts where no one else would have looked for them.

Famous representatives: Schizoids make history as creators, inventors, and great originals. Albert Einstein, mathematician George Perelman, intellectual Anatoly Wasserman, poet Fyodor Tyutchev. From the fictional characters - Dr. Brown from the Back to the Future trilogy.

Features: Nonstandardness often leads to problems in communication - they do not understand schizoid. This is not surprising: how would you look at the person who spoke about bread, and the next second you started talking about Yamakasi?

Communication problems lead to loneliness: the schizoid has few friends and practically no company. The list is supplemented by his own "callousness" - the schizoid lives with intelligence and therefore does not understand why logic can offend or shock someone. "After all, theoretically, there is a possibility that a brick will fall on your head! This is a fact! What is there to be offended about? L". It should be ready for this: the schizoid may not understand the most simple and banal things. You should not take this misunderstanding for malice.

Identification: schizoid notice as easily as the hysteroid. The fact is that representatives of the psychotype do not follow the appearance of the word "absolutely". If there is no time to sew a button on a paranoiac and hyperthyme, then a schizoid will hardly sew it, even if it’s not busy at all. Most likely, it will simply close this place with other clothes. The result is "something".

Often this “something” is complemented by a mixture of styles: trousers can be combined with sneakers, a tuxedo with a cowboy hat, a belt can be replaced with a belt from a robe, etc. Men often wear long beards.

Mimicry in schizoids of average activity, but illogical, does not correspond to the situation. This is also associated with an abundance of thoughts - when talking, the schizoid often thinks about his own, and his facial expression responds to his thoughts, and not to the words of the interlocutor. Gesturing corresponds to facial expressions - restrained and not always in the subject.

How to sell it: offering something schizoid, you should remember about his alleged asociality. Schizoid does not want to be alone, he is forced to be so. Therefore, by offering him something, try to focus on the mass character of the product (they all have it already), in extreme cases - on authorities. Other recommendations are difficult to give, because the schizoid probably doesn’t know what he will think next minute.

See also: 14 working ideas about productivity, understood over the years of pain

Psycho type number 7: Psychasthenoid. He's "disturbing."

Motivation: fears and caution. Psychasthenoid is a 100% pessimist and lover of blowing on water. “It doesn't matter what happens,” “I have a bad feeling about this” - favorite phrases of representatives of the psychotype. Remember the tale of Saltykov-Shchedrin about the wise minnow? Which "Lived - trembled, and died - trembled"? So, this same gudgeon is one of the clearest examples of what constitutes a "pure" psychasthenoid psycho.

Famous representatives: Anton Chekhov. In his letters to friends, the author often complained of "impersonal and weak-willed state", "fear of the public and publicity", "physical and brain fatigue", lack of courage and bad nerves. Similar symptoms suffered by Charles Darwin and Claude Monet.

Features: Fears and caution lead to constant fluctuations: psychasthenoids doubt everything. Whether to help grandma cross the road, which movie to go to, write “You” or “You” in a letter to a friend, etc. And if we talk about more serious decisions, they are completely contraindicated: the anxiety will suffer for a long time because of which option to choose, and then it will continue to suffer because of doubts, but did he do it right? All this leads to poor performance: the psychasthenoid effectively works only when it has a set of clear instructions for all occasions. And if these instructions really exist, you will not find a more zealous servant of order.

Yes, psychasthenoid in a special way refers to the order. True, its order is quite different from the order of the epileptoid. If an epileptoid wants to restore its order everywhere, then the psychasthenoid hardly keeps order in its own territory. He does not teach anyone life and does not criticize for mistakes (at least aloud). He will not force his workplace with numerous tools and necessary instruments - everything will be hidden in the closet. This is not an epileptoid - it has too little energy.

Identification: To notice psychasthenoid, you need to take a closer look: representatives of the psycho-type tend to draw attention to themselves as little as possible. In most cases, anxiety prefers dark or dark gray tones, a minimum of any jewelry, no cuts or neckline in women. Clothes are almost always the same - having chosen one or another style, representatives of the psycho-type will continue to buy practically exact copies of previous things. Mimicry in psychasthenoids is sedentary, restrained, as is gesticulation. The speech is quiet, uncertain - as if a person is afraid to say something. Behavior is also subject to general motivation and therefore unobtrusive.

How to sell it: Given the nature of psychasthenoid, make sure that you have detailed instructions for your product. The alarm system should know what your product is doing, how it works and what to do with it in case something goes wrong. Proof of safety and complete reliability will be useful. If you are able to provide all this - the chance that the psychasthenoid will buy will increase significantly. However, a quick decision should not be expected anyway - as already mentioned, the psycho-type is not inclined to impulsive actions.

See also: 25 best feature films on sales, marketing and business

Conclusion

We reviewed 7 of the most popular and explicit psycho. Of course, this is only a quick overview, but it can be a starting point for more detailed study. Want to know more - see the preface, there are the names of scientists who worked in the right direction. Well, we hope that this review will help you not only expand your understanding of the target audience, but also make the darkness of someone else's soul a little bit lighter for you.

Watch the video: A Conversation with Scott McCloud. Radcliffe Institute (March 2020).

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